TensorFlow – TensorFlow is an open source software library for numerical computation using data flow graphs. Nodes in the graph represent mathematical operations, while the graph edges represent the multidimensional data arrays (tensors) communicated between them.

Theano – Theano is a Python library that allows you to define, optimize, and evaluate mathematical expressions involving multi-dimensional arrays efficiently.

matplotlib – Matplotlib is a Python 2D plotting library which produces publication quality figures in a variety of hardcopy formats and interactive environments across platforms.

NumPy – NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific computing with Python. It contains among other things:

• a powerful N-dimensional array object
• sophisticated (broadcasting) functions
• tools for integrating C/C++ and Fortran code
• useful linear algebra, Fourier transform, and random number capabilities

Besides its obvious scientific uses, NumPy can also be used as an efficient multi-dimensional container of generic data. Arbitrary data-types can be defined. This allows NumPy to seamlessly and speedily integrate with a wide variety of databases.

Jupyter – The Jupyter Notebook is an open-source web application that allows you to create and share documents that contain live code, equations, visualizations and explanatory text. Uses include: data cleaning and transformation, numerical simulation, statistical modeling, machine learning and much more.

Greadient Descent – Gradient descent is a first-order iterative optimization algorithm for finding the minimum of a function. To find a local minimum of a function using gradient descent, one takes steps proportional to the negative of the gradient (or of the approximate gradient) of the function at the current point. If instead one takes steps proportional to the positive of the gradient, one approaches a local maximum of that function; the procedure is then known as gradient ascent.

Gradient descent is also known as steepest descent. However, gradient descent should not be confused with the method of steepest descent for approximating integrals.

Gradient descent is a popular method in the field of machine learning because part of the process of machine learning is to find the highest accuracy, or to minimize the error rate, given a set of training data. Gradient descent is used to find the minimum error by minimizing a “cost” function.

Baysean Statistics – Bayesian statistics, named for Thomas Bayes (1701–1761), is a theory in the field of statistics in which the evidence about the true state of the world is expressed in terms of degrees of belief known as Bayesian probabilities. Such an interpretation is only one of a number of interpretations of probability and there are other statistical techniques that are not based on ‘degrees of belief’. One of the key ideas of Bayesian statistics is that “probability is orderly opinion, and that inference from data is nothing other than the revision of such opinion in the light of relevant new information.”